Quantum computing and condensed matter physics with microwave photons

Tunable Coupling in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics Using a Superconducting Charge Qubit with a V-Shaped Energy Level Diagram

S. J. Srinivasan, A. J. Hoffman, J. M. Gambetta, and A. A. Houck

We introduce a new type of superconducting charge qubit that has aV-shaped energy spectrum and uses quantum interference to provide independently tunable qubit energy and coherent coupling to a superconducting cavity. Dynamic access to the strong coupling regime is demonstrated by tuning the coupling strength from less than 200 kHz to greater than 40 MHz. This tunable coupling can be used to protect the qubit from cavity-induced relaxation and avoid unwanted qubit-qubit interactions in a multiqubit system.

Superconducting Qubit with Purcell Protection and Tunable Coupling

J. M. Gambetta, A. A. Houck, and Alexandre Blais

We present a superconducting qubit for the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture that has a tunable qubit-resonator coupling strengthg. This coupling can be tuned from zero to values that are comparable with other superconducting qubits. At g=0, the qubit is in a decoherence-free subspace with respect to spontaneous emission induced by the Purcell effect. Furthermore, we show that in this decoherence-free subspace, the state of the qubit can still be measured by either a dispersive shift on the resonance frequency of the resonator or by a cycling-type measurement.

Quantum Non-demolition Detection of Single Microwave Photons in a Circuit

B. R. Johnson, M. D. Reed, A. A. Houck, D. I. Schuster, Lev S. Bishop, E. Ginossar, J. M. Gambetta, L. DiCarlo, L. Frunzio, S. M. Girvin, R. J. Schoelkopf

Thorough control of quantum measurement is key to the development of quantum information technologies. Many measurements are destructive, removing more information from the system than they obtain. Quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements allow repeated measurements that give the same eigenvalue. They could be used for several quantum information processing tasks such as error correction, preparation by measurement, and one-way quantum computing.

Fast Reset and Suppressing Spontaneous Emission of a Superconducting Qubit

M. D. Reed, B. R. Johnson, A. A. Houck, L. DiCarlo, J. M. Chow, D. I. Schuster, L. Frunzio, R. J. Schoelkopf

Spontaneous emission through a coupled cavity can be a significant decay channel for qubits in circuit QED. We present a new circuit design that effectively eliminates spontaneous emission due to the Purcell effect while maintaining strong coupling to a low Q cavity. Excellent agreement over a wide range in frequency is found between measured qubit relaxation times and the predictions of a circuit model. Using fast (nanosecond time-scale) flux biasing of the qubit, we demonstrate in-situ control of qubit lifetime over a factor of 50. We realize qubit reset with 99.9% fidelity in 120 ns.

Time-reversal-symmetry breaking in circuit-QED-based photon lattices

Jens Koch, Andrew A. Houck, Karyn Le Hur, and S. M. Girvin

Breaking time-reversal symmetry is a prerequisite for accessing certain interesting many-body states such as fractional quantum Hall states. For polaritons, charge neutrality prevents magnetic fields from providing a direct symmetry-breaking mechanism and, similar to the situation in ultracold atomic gases, an effective magnetic field has to be synthesized. We show that in the circuit-QED architecture, this can be achieved by inserting simple superconducting circuits into the resonator junctions.

Nonequilibrium delocalization-localization transition of photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics

S. Schmidt, D. Gerace, A. A. Houck, G. Blatter, and H. E. Türeci

We show that photons in two tunnel-coupled microwave resonators each containing a single superconducting qubit undergo a sharp nonequilibrium delocalization-localization (self-trapping) transition due to strong photon-qubit coupling. We find that self-trapping of photons in one of the resonators (spatial localization) forces the qubit in the opposite resonator to remain in its initial state (energetic localization). This allows for an easy experimental observation of the transition by local readout of the qubit state.