Quantum computing and condensed matter physics with microwave photons

Randomized benchmarking and process tomography for gate errors in a solid-state qubit

J. M. Chow, J. M. Gambetta, L. Tornberg, Jens Koch, Lev S. Bishop, A. A. Houck, B. R. Johnson, L. Frunzio, S. M. Girvin, R. J. Schoelkopf

We present measurements of single-qubit gate errors for a superconducting qubit. Results from quantum process tomography and randomized benchmarking are compared with gate errors obtained from a double π pulse experiment. Randomized benchmarking reveals a minimum average gate error of 1.1±0.3% and a simple exponential dependence of fidelity on the number of gates. It shows that the limits on gate fidelity are primarily imposed by qubit decoherence, in agreement with theory.

Controlling the Spontaneous Emission of a Superconducting Transmon Qubit

A. A. Houck, J. A. Schreier, B. R. Johnson, J. M. Chow, Jens Koch, J. M. Gambetta, D. I. Schuster, L. Frunzio, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, and R. J. Schoelkopf

We present a detailed characterization of coherence in seven transmon qubits in a circuit QED architecture. We find that spontaneous emission rates are strongly influenced by far off-resonant modes of the cavity and can be understood within a semiclassical circuit model. A careful analysis of the spontaneous qubit decay into a microwave transmission-line cavity can accurately predict the qubit lifetimes over two orders of magnitude in time and more than an octave in frequency. Coherence times T1 and T2* of more than a microsecond are reproducibly demonstrated.

Suppressing charge noise decoherence in superconducting charge qubits

J. A. Schreier, A. A. Houck, Jens Koch, D. I. Schuster, B. R. Johnson, J. M. Chow, J. M. Gambetta, J. Majer, L. Frunzio, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, and R. J. Schoelkopf

We present an experimental realization of the transmon qubit, an improved superconducting charge qubit derived from the Cooper pair box. We experimentally verify the predicted exponential suppression of sensitivity to 1/f charge noise [J. Koch et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 042319 (2007)]. This removes the leading source of dephasing in charge qubits, resulting in homogenously broadened transitions with relaxation and dephasing times in the microsecond range.

Quantum trajectory approach to circuit QED: Quantum jumps and the Zeno effect

Jay Gambetta, Alexandre Blais, M. Boissonneault, A. A. Houck, D. I. Schuster, and S. M. Girvin

We present a theoretical study of a superconducting charge qubit dispersively coupled to a transmission line resonator. Starting from a master equation description of this coupled system and using a polaron transformation, we obtain an exact effective master equation for the qubit. We then use quantum trajectory theory to investigate the measurement of the qubit by continuous homodyne measurement of the resonator out-field. Using the same porlaron transformation, a stochastic master equation for the conditional state of the qubit is obtained.

Charge-insensitive qubit design derived from the Cooper pair box

Jens Koch, Terri M. Yu, Jay Gambetta, A. A. Houck, D. I. Schuster, J. Majer, Alexandre Blais, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin, and R. J. Schoelkopf

Short dephasing times pose one of the main challenges in realizing a quantum computer. Different approaches have been devised to cure this problem for superconducting qubits, a prime example being the operation of such devices at optimal working points, so-called "sweet spots." This latter approach led to significant improvement of T2 times in Cooper pair box qubits [D. Vion et al., Science 296, 886 (2002)].

Coupling superconducting qubits via a cavity bus

J. Majer, J. M. Chow, J. M. Gambetta, Jens Koch, B. R. Johnson, J. A. Schreier, L. Frunzio, D. I. Schuster, A. A. Houck, A. Wallraff, A. Blais, M. H. Devoret, S. M. Girvin and R. J. Schoelkopf

Superconducting circuits are promising candidates for constructing quantum bits (qubits) in a quantum computer; single-qubit operations are now routine, and several examples of two qubit interactions and gates having been demonstrated. These experiments show that two nearby qubits can be readily coupled with local interactions. Performing gates between an arbitrary pair of distant qubits is highly desirable for any quantum computer architecture, but has not yet been demonstrated.