Quantum computing and condensed matter physics with microwave photons

Beyond Strong Coupling in a Massively Multimode Cavity

Neereja M. Sundaresan, Yanbing Liu, Darius Sadri, Laszlo J. Szocs, Devin L. Underwood, Moein Malekakhlagh, Hakan E. Tureci, Andrew A. Houck

The study of light-matter interaction has seen a resurgence in recent years, stimulated by highly controllable, precise, and modular experiments in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). The achievement of strong coupling, where the coupling between a single atom and fundamental cavity mode exceeds the decay rates, was a major milestone that opened the doors to a multitude of new investigations. Here we introduce multimode strong coupling (MMSC), where the coupling is comparable to the free spectral range (FSR) of the cavity, i.e. the rate at which a qubit can absorb a photon from the cavity is comparable to the round trip transit rate of a photon in the cavity. We realize, via the circuit QED architecture, the first experiment accessing the MMSC regime, and report remarkably widespread and structured resonance fluorescence, whose origin extends beyond cavity enhancement of sidebands. Our results capture complex multimode, multiphoton processes, and the emergence of ultranarrow linewidths. Beyond the novel phenomena presented here, MMSC opens a major new direction in the exploration of light-matter interactions.